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Manufacturers Index - Hazard Knowles

Hazard Knowles
Washington, DC; New York, NY, U.S.A.
Manufacturer Class: Wood Working Machinery

This page contains information on patents issued to this manufacturer.

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Patent Number Date Title Name City Description
X4,859 Aug. 24, 1827 Plane stocks of cast iron Hazard Knowles Colchester, CT This patent is the earliest American patent for a metallic plane, and it features prominently in both volumes of Roger K. Smith's books, "Patented Transitional and Metallic Planes in America."
According to Vol. I of PTAMPIA, "Apparently many other planemakers manufactured this type, either with or without license, because similar planes are known of various sizes and with minor design changes."
PTAMPIA Vol. II presents research relating to the manufacture of this design, including the fact that the known examples of the jointer plane also have Foster's patent 3,355 for a piece of soapstone inlet into the sole; in fact, Foster's patent, granted after this patent had already expired, shows a plane very similar to Knowles' design.
Several other Knowles patents were not restored after the 1836 patent-office fire: "Springs for carriages", 1825-11-04; "Mode of covering buildings", 1828-10-11; "Manufacturing wood screws", 1833-03-01; "Carriage to overcome obstruction in roads", 1833-08-29.
X6,441 Apr. 01, 1831 Improved mode of manufacturing wood-screws Hazard Knowles Colchester, CT
X7,733 Aug. 29, 1833 Whiffletree Hazard Knowles Colchester, CT Of interest because Knowles was an important early inventor of both metal planes and woodworking machinery.
6,039 Jan. 16, 1849 Mill-bush Hazard Knowles Washington, DC
6,294 Apr. 10, 1849 Planing-machine Hazard Knowles Washington, DC
6,370 Apr. 17, 1849 Cutter for tonguing and grooving Hazard Knowles Washington, DC Although we don't know who manufactured this side-head during the term of the patent, the 1882 catalog from Daniel Doncaster, Jr., mentions "the celebrated Knowles patent cutter head" in multiple places. The key feature of the Knowles side-head is the use of cutters that are circular segments: after each cutter is sharpened it is simply advanced slightly in its groove so that the cutting circle remains exactly the same. Furthermore, the cutter's shape determines the cut profile and sharpening a cutter merely involves flattening its end, which is simple and reproducible. The patent calls for two or three cutters; the Doncaster version has five cutters. Also, because the cutters are circumferential in shape, they can be manufactured by turning rings on a lathe and then cutting up each ring into multiple (probably four) cutters.
6,738 Sep. 25, 1849 Caul for veneers Hazard Knowles Washington, DC
7,475 Jul. 02, 1850 Improvement in the cutters and rakers of a grain and grass harvester H. C. Bevington Holmes County, OH
    Improvement in the cutters and rakers of a grain and grass harvester Hazard Knowles Washington, DC  
7,603 Aug. 27, 1850 Saw Hazard Knowles Washington, DC The patent mentions sawmill blades, either circular or straight, but the only known example of this patent is a handsaw, which is stamped "W. B. Gregory & Co. / Albany / Warranted", and "H. Knowles / Patent / 7 Aug 1850". The sawblade retains its patented teeth. It is likely that sawmill blades, both circular and straight, were manufactured under this patent but such blades only last a few years of use and would have been discarded.
The cutting edges of the patent teeth are swaged outward beyond the edge of the saw plate, and are not set; rather, the swaging provides the side clearance. Because each tooth projects only a small amount from the edge of the saw plate, the saw plate itself acts as a chip limiter to prevent the saw from taking an excessive bit. This chip limiting is claimed to prevent tooth breakage.
There was an article on this patent in the September 1983 (No. 33, p. 5) issue of the MWTCA "Gristmill".
9,284 Sep. 28, 1852 Saw mill Hazard Knowles New York, NY
12,134 Jan. 02, 1855 Cutter for tonguing and grooving Hazard Knowles New York, NY
14,160 Jan. 29, 1856 Mortising tool Hazard Knowles New York, NY
RE629 Nov. 30, 1858 Improvement in saw-mills Hazard Knowles New York, NY
23,092 Mar. 01, 1859 Improvement in fastening bands on bales and packages Hazard Knowles New York, NY
25,125 Aug. 16, 1859 Improvement in clasps for fastening bands on cotton bales, &c. Hazard Knowles New York, NY