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Manufacturers Index - Thomson-Houston Electric Co.
Last Modified: Feb 27 2013 8:30PM by joelr4
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      Thomson-Houston Electric Co. made Electric Motors in the 1890’s.

      THOMSON, ELIHU An American Inventor and electrical engineer, born af Manchester, England, 1853. In 1858, he came to the United States and was educated in the public schools in Philadelphia. He was professor of chemistry and mechanics in the Central High School there from 1870 to 1880, when he resigned to devote himself to electrical research work. In 1880 he became electrician for the American Electric Co., afterward known as the Thomson-Houston Electric Co. The first officers of the American Electric Company were: President, William Parker; Treasurer and General Manager, Frederick H. Churchill, Electrician, Elihu Thomson. Among the directors were A. C. Dunham, Henry Stanley, and J. B. Talcott. An incident of the early establishment of the factory in New Britain may be mentioned here. The pattern shop of the company being located at a distant part of the building from the main power, it was driven by a dynamo used as a motor fed from the testing room, and used practically for quite a long period as the only source of power in the pattern shop. It constitutes probably one of the very earliest instances of the actual practical use of electrical transmission, or power distributed by electrical currents. This was during the year 1881 and thereafter, and it may be remarked in this connection that all of the turning, sawing, etc., in connection with the production of the first pattern for the early apparatus of the company as made in New Britain was done by electric power. Furthermore, the motor could be started, stopped and reversed, or its speed varied at will by simple adjustments. Little was accomplished during the three years of this company's existence. The works were not properly equipped with tools, etc., there being only one plane and a few lathes. Money was scarce and new tools could not be bought. The consequence was that Prof. Thomson was greatly hampered in his work, being compelled in the designing of new machines and devices to produce something that would require almost no machine work in their manufacture. An effort was made to sell out to the United States Company, which would have been successful if the latter had been able to make a satisfactory contract with Prof. Thomson. He insisted that a clause should be inserted requiring the United States Company to push the business properly. This clause was rejected, and the sale was off. In the fall of 1882 a controlling interest was purchased by the Brush Electric Co., of Cleveland, and Prof. Thomson resigned. In June, 1882, a small plant was established in Lynn, supplying light to a score of customers. The plant attracted the attention of a number of Lynn capitalists, including Messrs. Barton, Pevear, and Coffin, who thought, and rightly, that there was more money in the new enterprise than in the business, in which they had previously been engaged. The Brush interest was bought out by the Lynn gentlemen, who were quick to see the great value of the patents controlled by the American Company, and the practically unlimited field for their development. Prof. Thomson at once returned to his former position. In 1883 they were granted permission by the legislature of the state to increase the capital stock, change the name, and to remove to Massachusetts. The scene of operations was transferred to Lynn in the latter part of 1883, and the Thomson-Houston Electric Company began its career of remarkable financial success, and scientific achievement. The capital stock was soon increased to $125,000. The company was re-organized throughout, with the following named gentlemen as officers and directors: H. A. Pevear, Pres.; C. A. Coflin, Vice-Pres. And Treas.; E. I. Garfield, Secy.; S. A. Barton, Gen. Mgr.; Directors, Pevear,C. A. Coffin, S. A. Barton, B. F. Spinney, J. N. Smith. The push and energy of the new management placed the company at once on a solid footing, and the first year witnessed a large increase in the volume of business. Operations were no longer confined to New England. Local agencies were established in all the principal cities, and in many foreign countries. It was but a short time until the Thomson-Houston Company had assumed a leading position in the electrical field, and had so far outstripped many of its competitors that the advantages of forming alliances with them became apparent. Since that time seven of the electric manufacturing companies have come under the control of the Thomson-Houston Company. These are the Brush Electric Co., of Cleveland, O; the Schuyler Electric Company, of Middletown, CT.; the Excelsior Electric Company, of New York; the Van Depoele Electric Manufacturing Company, of Chicago, 111; the Indianapolis Jenney Company, of Indianapolis, Ind., and the Bentley-Knight Electric Company, of New York. The manufacturing business of the three latter companies was transferred to Lynn, their former factories being closed. This, after consolidation with the Edison Co. in 1892, became the General Electric Co., the largest electrical manufacturer in the world. Among Dr. Thomson's inventions are the three-coil armature for arc dynamos; the constant-current regulator for arc-lighting dynamos: the process of electric resistance welding of metals; the magnetic blowout for switches and fuses and the motor type of electric meter for direct and alternating currents. Since 1892, when the General Electric Co. established its plant in Lynn, Mass., he has resided there, retaining his connection as consulting electrical engineer. In recognition of his extensive contributions to applied science numerous honors have been bestowed upon him. He was president of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers in 1889-90 and the first recipient of the Edison Medal awarded annually by the A. I. E. E. In 1916 he was awarded the John Fritz medal by the four national engineering societies of the United States.

Information Sources

  • Modern Mechanism, 1895 page 544
  • EMF electrical year book, Volume 1 Jun 1921 page 751
  • Electricity, 27 Jul 1892 pgs 17 - 26