This firm was established in 1834 by Levi Lincoln, who founded New England Card Co. in 1832. The Iron Works made tools and simple machines used in making carding tools for production of cotton and wool. The early machines were dog-powered, and displaced a substantial domestic industry in making cards by hand. By the 1846 George S. Lincoln and his brother Charles L. Lincoln were in charge. The Iron Works' products included drills and engine lathes. The Works did business as George S. Lincoln & Co. The company reorganized as Lincoln & Co. in 1885 and again in 1901 as the Phoenix Iron Works.
The famous Lincoln milling machine was manufactured here in 1854 by Francis A. Pratt, who went on to found the Pratt & Whitney Co. in 1862. The "Lincoln miller" design was made by many firms in the latter half of the 19th century.
By 1930 the business was known as Taylor & Fenn, and is still in business under that name. We don't know when they stopped making drills and lathes, but we have a report (with pictures) of a Taylor-Fenn six-spindle drilling machine.
- A history booklet produced by Pratt & Whitney, Accuracy for Seventy Years, 1860—1930, published in 1930 and reprinted 2003, says that Pratt apprenticed to Warren Aldrich of Lowell, Mass., probably about 1841: "After a grammar school education, he was apprenticed to Warren Aldrich, a thorough mechanic and a wise teacher of the old school." About Phoenix, it says, "Two years of intensive study and work brought to Mr. Pratt an invitation to become the superintendent of the Phoenix Iron Works of Hartford—a Company that had been established in 1834 by Levi Lincoln. Incidentally, this is now the Taylor & Fenn Company."
- A history of Pratt & Whitney says, "Two young machinists, Francis Pratt and Amos Whitney, working at the Phoenix Iron Works in Hartford, Connecticut founded the Pratt & Whitney Company in 1860." It also says that Pratt, born in 1825, started work at Phoenix when he was 27, or in about 1852.
- An Answers.com article on cutting tools says the following: "The Phoenix Iron Works of Hartford, Connecticut, created the first tool to really form a metal chip, thereby cutting the metal. The tool had 56 teeth placed around its nearly 3-inch diameter. The teeth were chipped by a hammer and chisel. While effective, the tool required too much labor when it needed sharpening. In 1864, the Brown & Sharpe Co., later the Brown & Sharpe Manufacturing Co., developed the first cutter that could be sharpened by grinding the face without altering its shape. To date, the elements of this design are still in use."
- The book, Hartford, Conn., as a manufacturing, business and commercial center; with brief sketches of its history, attractions, leading industries, and institutions, published by the Hartford Board of Trade in 1889, has the following sketch of Phoenix Iron Works.
In 1832, Levi Lincoln, ancestor of the present proprietors of the Phoenix Iron Works, was agent and manager of the New England Card Company, which had a shop on Ann Street. At one time the concern had on its books the names of nine hundred women and children scattered about the country who were employed at odd hours in setting the wire teeth of the cards used in the manufacture of cotton and woolen goods and for other purposes. Mr. Lincoln either invented or greatly improved a machine for punching the holes in the leather, and for making and inserting the teeth by a continu-ous process. The contrivance put an end to the. domestic industry. It was operated at first by dog-power. Applying the same mechanical principles, Mr. Lincoln invented the hook-and-eye machine. He also invented the molasses gate which is still made in large quantities, and has never since been materially improved.
In 1841, the premises, where many ideas had found embodiment in practical forms, were turned into a regular machine shop, under the firm name of George S. Lincoln & Co. In a short time they were doing a large business in the production of lathes, pulleys, shaftings, and small tools. Special industries were then springing up over the State, and in many cases the projectors came to George S. Lincoln & Co. for their machinery, in part because the mechanical talent of the concern was found to be highly valuable in eliminating defects of design, and in adapting adjustments to the ends required. At one time gun tools, of recognized superiority, were made in large quantities for the armories of the United States and Europe.
American Milling Machine Builders: 1820-1920 by Kenneth L. Cope, 2007 page 158
American Planer, Shaper and Slotter Builders: 1830-1910 by Kenneth L. Cope, 2002 page 133
American Lathe Builders: 1810-1910 by Kenneth L. Cope, 2001 page 118